Chickenpox: Definition, Cause, Symptom and Treatment


đŸŸ Summary :

The incidence of this disease decreased considerably after the introduction of the vaccine. Since 1995, when the varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA, the incidence of Chickenpox has decreased by more than 80%


đŸŸ How do I catch Chickenpox ?

Chickenpox is contagious 1-2 days before the rash appears until all the blisters dry up and become scabs.

She is very contagious. The virus can be transmitted from person to person by:

Note : Vaccinated persons may develop lesions that do not form a scab. These people are considered contagious as long as no new lesions have appeared for 24 hours.


đŸŸ What are the symptoms of Chickenpox ?

Once a person is exposed to the virus, Chickenpox can take up to 14 to 16 days to appear (with extremes between 10 and 21 days). The illness usually lasts about 4 to 7 days.

Prodromes such as fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, abdominal pain precede the appearance of the rash by 24 to 48 hours.

The rash is generalized and itchy. It progresses rapidly from macular to papular to vesicular (fluid-filled) lesions before crusting (after about 5-7 days). The lesions are generally present at all stages of development at the same time. The rash usually appears first on the chest, back, and face and then spreads all over the body, including inside the mouth, eyelids, or area genital.

Chickenpox

Note : In healthy children, Chickenpox is usually mild. Infants, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and immunocompromised people are at risk for more severe disease and have a higher incidence of complications.


đŸŸ Complications of Chickenpox

These complications are rare but serious. They are more common in infants under 12 months, adolescents, adults, pregnant people and people with weakened immune systems.


đŸŸ Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Chickenpox infection is based primarily on signs and symptoms. If in doubt about the diagnosis, Chickenpox can be confirmed by laboratory tests, including blood tests or culture of lesion samples.

How to recognize a Chickenpox pimple ?

The rash first appears on the chest, back, and face, then spreads all over the body, starting with many small red bumps that look like pimples or insect bites. They appear in waves over 2-4 days, due to these successive outbreaks, not all chickenpox pimples will be at the same stage at the same time, then turn into thin-walled, fluid-filled blisters (between 250 and 500 blisters) .

As the blisters open, the sores scab over as they heal. These sores appear as dry, crusty scabs on the skin.

Note: During this phase, wounds can easily become infected and can cause: Impetigo, Erysipelas, Cellulitis.

Laboratory tests: detection of viral antigens, detection of specific antibodies, culture or by PCR are recommended for:

Note: The PCR test of skin lesion specimens remains the most practical and accurate method for diagnosing Chickenpox in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.


đŸŸ Treatment

In healthy children, Chickenpox usually requires no medical treatment and recovery usually occurs within 2 weeks. However, your doctor can prescribe an antihistamine to relieve itching, antibiotics in case of superinfection or antivirals in certain very specific cases.

Most treatments aim to make the child more comfortable:

Antiviral treatment is only indicated in very specific cases. In fact, intravenous (IV) aciclovir is only used for the treatment of varicella in the immunocompromised, in newborns, severe forms in children under 1 year old and complicated varicella. .


đŸŸ Prevention

The best way to protect yourself against Chickenpox is to get vaccine.

The varicella vaccine is given in 2 doses. The first dose is given when your child is 12 to 15 months old. The second is administered when he is between 4 and 6 years old. It can also be given to older children and adults at any time. Anyone who hasn't had

All pregnant women and immunocompromised people should avoid contact with anyone with Chickenpox or shingles.



Reference

  1. cdph - VARICELLA (CHICKENPOX)
  2. CDC - Chickenpox (Varicella)
  3. stanford childrens health - Chickenpox (Varicella) and Pregnancy
  4. immunize.org - Vaccine Information Statements
  5. Folusakin Ayoade; Sandeep Kumar - Varicella Zoster
  6. Susan Allen - Chickenpox and shingles infection
  7. vidal - Varicelle
  8. Jessica Leung - Evaluation of Laboratory Methods for Diagnosis of Varicella
  9. Biominis - varicelle zona
  10. Stéphane Berthélémy - La varicelle, une pathologie bénigne mais trÚs contagieuse
  11. mayoclinic - Chickenpox
  12. Hopkins medicine - Chickenpox
  13. Immunization Action Coalition - Vaccin contre la varicelle : Ce que vous devez savoir
  14. Connecticut Department of Public Health - Guidelines for Evaluating Chickenpox-like Rash in Recipients of Varicella Vaccine