Classification of antibiotics

Summary :

◉ What is an antibiotic ?

Antibiotic is any natural substance of biological origin produced by a living organism, chemical substance produced by synthesis or semi-synthetic substance obtained by chemical modification of a natural base molecule which is capable of inhibiting the multiplication or destroying microorganisms and having the following properties :

Antibiotics have the property of directly interfering with the proliferation of microorganisms at concentrations tolerated by the host.

❖ Bacteriostatic Antibiotic

  • Stops the growth of bacteria by preventing their proliferation, thus facilitating their destruction by the host's defenses.
  • Reversible effect

❖ Bactericidal Antibiotic:

  • Kills bacteria, preferred in cases of severe infection and/or large inoculum and in immunocompromised patients.
  • Irreversible effect.

◉ Classification of antibiotics

La classification des antibiotiques peut se faire selon :

◉ Mode of action of antibiotics

Antibiotics act at the molecular level at the level of one or more metabolic steps essential to the life of the bacterium. They act by :

👉 Selective toxicity at the level of:

👉 Competitive inhibition

In this case the antibiotic is a structural analog, it interferes with an essential function of the bacterium.

Mode of action of antibiotics

◉ Antibiotics Families

Some common families of antibiotics include :