The transmission of HAV is mainly by the faecal-oral route. Contamination occurs mainly through water and foods that are not or undercooked
Due to a short period of viremia, the hepatitis A virus can be transmitted during a transfusion or during the reuse of contaminated syringes (exceptional situations).
WHO : The hepatitis A virus can also be spread through close physical contact with an infected person (for example, through oral or anal sex), but it is not spread through ordinary person-to-person contact.
The main modes of contamination are exposure to blood products and their derivatives before systematic screening, during unprotected sexual relations and perinatal vertical transmission
The hepatitis B is present in saliva and semen, a transmission by contact with mucous secretions is possible.
The hepatitis B virus is extremely contagious : ten times more than the hepatitis C virus
WHO : The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, it can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person not protected by the vaccine.
The transmission of hepatitis C is by parenteral route: blood transfusion, drug addiction by IV route, accidental injections in the professional setting, tattoos, body piercing, acupuncture, dialysis patients, medical or dental care carried out with reusable poorly disinfected equipment, sharing toothbrushes and razors.
La transmission par voie sexuelle est rare, particulièrement chez les partenaires monogames. La transmission périnatale est également faible
WHO : Hepatitis C is not spread through breast milk, food, water or casual contact (hugging or kissing), or sharing food or drink with an infected person .
The routes of transmission for hepatitis D are the same for HBV: Parenteral transmission is the most common. The risk of transmission during unprotected sex is lower than for hepatitis B. Perinatal contamination is rare.
The transmission of hepatitis E occurs by the faecal-oral route, mainly by the absorption of water contaminated by feces. Perinatal contamination is described
WHO : Other routes of transmission have been identified: undercooked meat, transfusion of infected blood products, vertical transmission of the virus from a pregnant woman to her child.